Stephen Mizell

Test Coverage is a Lie

January 14, 2019

I have some bad news about test coverage—it doesn’t tell us how much of our code is covered by tests, even though the name says it does. It doesn’t help us improve the quality of our software. It doesn’t help us find bugs. It feels like it’s a lie. And maybe it is.

What is Test Coverage?

Wikipedia has an underwhelming—though in my opinion correct—definition of test coverage.

In computer science, test coverage is a measure used to describe the degree to which the source code of a program is executed when a particular test suite runs.

As its defined here, test coverage does not tell us which lines in the code have been tested. It does not tell us whether all possible conditions have been tested. It only tells which lines of code were executed during a test run.

The definition makes no mention of quality, though it does go on to talk about bugs.

A program with high test coverage, measured as a percentage, has had more of its source code executed during testing, which suggests it has a lower chance of containing undetected software bugs compared to a program with low test coverage.

This idea presented is that more coverage correlates with fewer bugs. Correct or not, this is not the same as using coverage as a tool to find existing bugs or preventing bugs from making it to production. It only tells us there is a lower chance of bugs because of the test coverage.

The Reason Test Coverage Lies

Let’s look at a short example to see how test coverage gives us a false sense of how well-tested our code is. Consider the code below. It has four branches to test.

// This function always returns 12
// ...or does it?
exports.alwaysTwelve = function(a, b) {
  let y, z;

  if (a === true) y = 4;
  else y = 6;

  if (b === true) z = 3;
  else z = 2;

  return y * z;

And here are some tests for it.

const assert = require('assert');
const { alwaysTwelve } = require('.');

describe('Always Twelve', function () {
  context('when true', function () {
    it('returns 12', function () {
      const value = alwaysTwelve(true, true);
      assert.equal(value, 12);

  context('when false', function () {
    it('returns 12', function () {
      const value = alwaysTwelve(false, false);
      assert.equal(value, 12);

The code and tests above result in 100% test coverage because the two tests are enough to cover the four branches in the code. However, they are not enough to cover all possible paths through the application code. They don’t help us catch an obvious bug in the logic of our code.

We can calculate the number of tests we need to execute all the possible paths through the code. The possible paths is the result of taking 2n where n is the number of conditions in the code. Therefore, in our code above with two conditions, we need four tests, not two. As we have it, our tests only test the inputs:

  • true and true (resulting in 12)
  • false and false (resulting in 12)

However, they should also test the inputs:

  • true and false (resulting in 8)
  • false and true (resulting in 18)

If we had tested these conditions, we would have found our tests did not completely test our logic, resulting in a bug. Sadly, with passing tests and 100% coverage, we may have shipped this code and had to find these bugs later in production. That’s no fun.

I’ve created a repository showing this example which you can checkout and try. You’ll see the tests passing with 100% coverage.

Code Executed Isn’t Code Covered

If test coverage only tells us what code is executed, it means we could execute code and never test it. Let’s convert our test suite from above to show this scenario.

const assert = require('assert');
const { alwaysTwelve } = require('.');

describe('Always Twelve', function () {
  context('when called', function () {
    it('returns 12', function () {
      // Called twice, though nothing is asserted
      alwaysTwelve(true, true);
      alwaysTwelve(false, false);

This bad test will pass and result in 100% test coverage. Not only does test coverage say “100%” when we may need to test more, it shows us “100%” when we thought we tested everything but didn’t.

What This Tells Us About Test Coverage

There are some unfortunate conclusions we can take from these examples.

  1. Executed and tested are two different concepts. While we may know what code executed through test coverage, it doesn’t mean those lines are properly tested or tested at all.
  2. The percentage is a best case scenario. If the test coverage says 80%, that tells us between 0-80% of the code is properly tested.
  3. Once a line of code is marked as covered, it ceases to be a helpful designation. As shown above, unless we know why a line of code is considered covered, we can’t say it’s been properly tested.
  4. The number of lines unexecuted is the only useful metric. This measurement can tell us what code needs tests or what areas of code are weak on testing. The percentage of test covered tells us little more than which code was executed, which has some value but not much. It’s only useful in telling us what code wasn’t executed.

Test coverage doesn’t help us improve code quality, explore the design of our code, discover bugs, prevent bugs, or test the logic of the code. It can only tell us that our code executed without errors with the inputs we gave it. That’s it really. That’s all we get from test coverage. Maybe that’s worth something.

A Better Way

Good testing starts with good software architecture. Gary Bernhardt has a great talk called Boundaries where he discusses a model for thinking about and designing software that can lead to helpful testing practices. The video does a much better job than I can at explaining his thoughts. But there are some things I’d like to pull from it to talk about testing.

Gary has two categories of code. One category contains all of the paths and conditionals but has no dependencies. This category of code includes business logic and policies but doesn’t access the outside world like databases, the internet, or disks. It lends itself well to isolated unit testing, and it allows developers to test all possible paths quickly (because 2n tests adds up). He calls the category the functional core.

The other category of code contains almost no paths yet defines all of the dependencies. This category lends itself well to integration testing since integration tests wire together databases, internet, and disks and ensure they work. He calls this category the imperative shell.

With these categories in mind, we can look at code and look at whether there are outside dependencies and whether all paths are well-tested. We can write many fast unit tests since the paths are isolated from the outside world and a few integration tests to ensure the world is wired together correctly.

Therefore, code reviewers can move from relying on test coverage to thinking about paths and dependencies.

  1. Have we introduced a dependency where it shouldn’t be?
  2. Have we added paths in our code where they shouldn’t be?
  3. Are we testing all of the conditionals in the code?
  4. Are we writing small functions so we can reduce our testing surface area and create solid boundaries?

I’d also like to point to another video that I think gives many good thoughts on testing well called Please Don’t Mock Me. It is a good addition to Gary Bernhardt’s Boundaries video and explores poor ways to use tests and one good way to use them.

How Should We Use Test Coverage?

There is some usefulness to this measurement when it gives feedback on unexecuted code during the development process. It can show TDD practitioners where they are getting ahead of themselves. It can show developers where they forgot to test before they open a pull request. It can show open source maintainers areas missing tests by a contribution. The measurement for the project may not say much as a whole, but during the changes to the code, the unexecuted value can give some insights.

And that is the important takeaway—the value is in knowing what code went unexecuted during our test run. It’s better to think of the measurement as “10% of my code was unexecuted during my tests” rather than “90% of my code is covered by tests” (which as we’ve seen may not be true). Or better yet, “I’ve added 15 lines of code that aren’t executed during my tests.” This to me is the more helpful—and more honest—approach, and it helps us change code with some added confidence.